In the meantime, policies and mechanisms were developed to encourage organizations and individuals to study and apply research results, use advanced technology, and create products and locally tailored environmental technology for environmental remediation in some hot spots.
1. Scientific and Technological research for Environmental protection
Scientific and technological research activities have been defined in orientations for scientific and technological activities in the environmental sector of the period 2011 - 2015, for examples:
Providing scientific foundation for environmental planning, socioeconomic development planning, environmental planning for river basins;identifying trends and causes of natural resource changes, environmental trends in some key zones and proposing integrated management solutions for wise use of natural resources and environmental protection;
Conducting research and application of environmentally friendly technology, clean technology, waste recycling and treatment technology; developing and scaling up cleaner production model; developing environmental industry; creating market for promoting environmental service, developing environmental economics;
Applying effectively and creating Vietnamese condition tailored and advanced technology for environmental remediation, combining treating and reusing wastes (small and medium scale livestock waste; municipal waste from small towns, agricultural and traditional craft village waste);
Research objectives and contents in this period are under a framework of a national core program on “Natural disaster prevention, environmental protection and wise use of natural resources” coded KC.08/11-15 (2011 - 2015). There are 34 science and technology projects, two pilot programs and five potential research projects with funding of 205 billion VND, of which 15 billion VND is from non-state budgets. Science and technology research program of MONRE “Research and Application of Science and Technology for Environmental Protection in Việt Nam period 2010 - 2015” coded TNMT.04.10-15 has over 60 research projects, funding of about 90 billion VND plus some independent national science and technology projects, some ministerial level research projects and some research projects conducted by enterprises. Scientific and technological measures are studied in Program “Developing Environmental Industry for Việt Nam by 2015, vision by 2025” approved by Prime Minister in Decision No. 1030/QD-TTg dated 20/7/2009 with 58 projects and funding of 138 billion VND.
Science and technology contribution in the past socioeconomic development period focused on two areas: environmental policymaking, regional development planning; environmental technology application to address pollution in some key areas.
Science and technology for environmental policymaking and regional development planning
Environmental research projects focused on addressing macro issues such as environmental planning for key areas (Red River delta, Mekong River Delta and Central key economic zone) and necessity of environmental protection in rural areas, craft villages and farms. In addition, the research projects have integrated environmental issues into natural resource use and socioeconomic development for regional sustainable development (Central Highland, Quảng Bình- Quảng Trị ecologically special zone, and Southern key economic zone) and river basins (Đà River, Ba River, Côn River, Lô River and Chảy River).
Regarding environmental planning, the research projects have thoroughly analyzed shortcomings and proposed methodology and procedures for regional environmental planning, using the following methods: environmental zoning, matrixes (environmental impact assessment), pollution load calculation, carrying capacity analyses, mathematical modeling for environmental projection, extended cost-benefit analyses, social surveys, mapping, strategic environmental impact assessment and environmental planning, and remote sensing and GIS application. Results of the research projects are environmental planning maps and spatially and time series environmental trends for the studied areas. These are importantly scientific and practical bases for regional planning for socio-economic development and environmental protection.
Regarding rural environment, craft villages and farms, for the first time, these topics are studied in a comprehensive way for both large and small scales, for different ecological and geographical areas. Based on the studies, an overview of rural environment and the environment of craft villages and farms have been established. The studies have identified the most critical environment issues and projected environmental trends for the future. The studies also have evaluated impact of socioeconomic development policies on natural resources and environment. Recommendations have been made for improved environmental management policy and measures.
In the environmental economics field, the studies have contributed in terms of methodology and applications of new environmental economic techniques such as market and non-market valuation and extended cost-benefit analyses, correlations between economic growth and waste volumes, and environmental modeling. The research projects have provided scientific bases and concrete evidence in some cases for policymaking relevant to socioeconomic development in Southern zone in the industrialization and modernization period for sustainable development.
Research results have helped clarify some aspects of environmental economics which is a relatively new area in Việt Nam, evaluate the economic importance of natural resource and environment degradation, identify economic causes of environmental degradation, interactions among economic activities, and address conflicts between economic growth and environmental protection. Recommendations have been made for integrated environmental protection in the studied sites.
Research projects under the Program have integrated environmental protection and wise use of natural resources into socio-economic development in a sustainable way. These are integrated and intersectoral research areas which are priorities in this period.
Applying and developing relevant environmental technology to address pollution in some hot spots
Environmental technology sector in Việt Nam has been established and developed through domestic production and import to meet sustainable socioeconomic development demands, in particular after the Law on Environmental Protection was enacted. Domestic science and technology organizations have played an important role and made positive contribution to developing environmental technology in Việt Nam. Among the studied technologies, many have been applied effectively such as wastewater treatment (mechanical, chemical, chemical/physical, biochemical, and biological methods), emission treatment using dry methods (depositing components, cyclones, sleeve filtering, static filtering) and wet methods (adsorption, redox), and solid waste treatment (sanitary landfills, solidification, chemical reaction, biological methods, and recycling).
In the past period, the studies developed some effective, user friendly, environmentally friendly technology models for treating water, soil and air pollution. Protocols for treating pollution after flooding, soil and water pollution due to acidic effluents, heavy metal pollution in mining sector and urban air pollution have been developed. These methods used simple technology and environmentally friendly materials and nano materials. The use of these materials has potential for further scale-up, in particular in wastewater treatment.
|Many environmentally friendly and advanced technologies have been applied to treat pollution
2. Orientations of Science and Technology for Environmental protection
Science and technology for environmental protection is one of the five priorities of science and technology development approved by Prime Minister in Strategy for Science and Technology Development period 2011 - 2020 at Decision No.418/QD-TTg dated 11/4/2012. The activities include: developing locally suitable technologies for wastewater treatment, solid waste and hazardous waste treatment, and emission treatment, applying cleaner production and environmentally friendly technology in production and trade to mitigate green house gases, and developing waste recycling technology.
Science and technology for environmental protection is continued to be one of the measures for implementing Resolution No. 20-NQ/TW of the 6th Central Meeting of 11th Party Congress on “continuing developing science and technology for industrialization and modernization in the condition of socialist oriented market economy and international integration” and Resolution No. 24/NQ-TW of the 7th Central Meeting of 11th Party Congress on “proactively respond to climate change and enhance natural resource management and environmental protection”: boosting research and application of science and technology in responding to climate change and natural resource management and protection, promoting production technology renovation in an environmentally friendly manner, energy saving, effective use of natural resources, low waste and low carbon, research and development and technology transfer to climate change responses, natural resource management and environmental protection.
Point a, Clause 1, Article 27 of Law on Science and Technology 2013 specifies that “based on socioeconomic development plans and strategies and a national strategy on developing science and technology, Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) approved science and technology orientations, objectives and tasks for a 5 year period and annual science and technology tasks”. Following this, MOST has developed science and technology orientations and objectives for the period 2016-2020 (Minister’s Decision No. 1318/QD-BKHCN dated 5/6/2015). This document highlights measures for mobilizing resources for developing environmental science and technology orientations such as: priorities for developing advanced technologies, high technologies, intersectoral technologies including telecommunication technologies, biotechnologies, new material technologies, smart technologies and environmental technologies; promoting applied research and technology development in agriculture, industry, medicine and pharmacy, transport, construction, energy, marine science and technology, natural resource management science and technology, and spatial science and technology. This is an important basis for developing necessary environmental science and technology projects in the period 2016 - 2020 and promoting sustainable and environmentally friendly socioeconomic development.
Report of National Science and Technology Program “Science and Technology for disaster prevention and mitigation, environmental protection and wise use of natural resources” coded KC.08/11-15
Science and Technology orientations, objectives and tasks period 2011-2015 (Prime Minister’s Decision 1244/QD-TTg dated 25/7/2011)
Strategy of developing Science and Technology by 2020 (Prime Minister’s Decision 418/QD-TTg dated 11/4/2012)
Science and technology orientations and objectives for the period 2016-2020 (Minister of Science and Technology’s Decision 1318/QD-BKHCN dated 5/6/2015)
Dr. Nguyễn Thị Thanh Hà
Deputy Director - Department of Natural and Social Science
Ministry of Science and Technology